Sunday, 13 January 2019

RUSSIA - Koryak Okrug / Коря́кский о́круг/ Чав’чываокруг

Koryak Okrug (Russian: Коря́кский о́круг, translit. Korjakskij okrug; Koryak: Чав’чываокруг, Čav’čyvaokrug), or Koryakia Russian: Корякия, translit. Korjakija), is an administrative division of Kamchatka Krai, Russia.  It was a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Kamchatka Oblast) from 1931  until July 1, 2007, when it merged with Kamchatka Oblast. Prior to the merger, it was called Koryak Autonomous Okrug (Коря́кский автоно́мный о́круг). Its administrative center is the urban locality (an urban-type settlement) of Palana.

RUSSIA - Penza Oblast / Пензенская область

Penza Oblast (Russian: Пе́нзенская о́бласть, Penzenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Penza. Penza Province was established within Kazan Governorate in 1718. It became a separate Penza Governorate on September 15, 1780, which existed until March 5, 1797, when it was dissolved and merged into Saratov Governorate. Penza Governorate was re-established on September 9, 1801 and existed until 1928. Between 1928 and 1937, the territory of the former governorate underwent a number of administrative transformations, ending up as a part of Tambov Oblast in 1937. On February 4, 1939, modern Penza Oblast was established  by splitting it out of Tambov Oblast.

RUSSIA - Lipetsk Oblast / Липецкая область

Lipetsk Oblast (Russian: Ли́пецкая о́бласть, Lipetskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).  Its administrative center is the city of Lipetsk. Lipetsk Oblast borders with Ryazan Oblast (NE), Tambov Oblast (E), Voronezh Oblast (S), Kursk Oblast (SW), Oryol Oblast (W), and Tula Oblast (NW)

Friday, 28 December 2018

RUSSIA - Vologda Oblast / Вологодская область

Vologda Oblast (Russian: Вологодская область, tr. Vologodskaya oblast, is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is Vologda. The largest city is Cherepovets, the home of the Severstal metallurgical plant, the largest industrial enterprise in the oblast.Vologda Oblast is rich in historic monuments, such as the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, Ferapontov Monastery (a World Heritage Site) with the frescoes of Dionisius, medieval towns of Velikiy Ustyug and Belozersk, and baroque churches of Totma and Ustyuzhna.Large reserves of wood and fresh water are the main natural resources. 
Vologda Oblast borders with Arkhangelsk Oblast in the north, Kirov Oblast in the east, Kostroma Oblast in the southeast, Yaroslavl Oblast in the south, Tver and Novgorod Oblasts in the southwest, Leningrad Oblast in the west, and the Republic of Karelia in the northwest.
Vologda Oblast is located on the East European Plain, and most of it represents forested hilly landscape. The southwest of the oblast, along the Sheksna and the Mologa, is flat. The northwestern part is mostly of glacial origin, with the Andoma Hills, the Veps Hills, and a number of minor hill chains. In the east of the oblast, the valleys of the Vaga, the Sukhona, and the Yug are cut through the hills. The southeast of the oblast is occupied by the Northern Ridge, which is located south of the valley of the Sukhona.

CHINA - Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region / شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى /新疆维吾尔自治区

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى‎; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwú’ěr Zìzhìqū) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2 . Xinjiang contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which is administered by China and claimed by India. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. The rugged Karakoram, Kunlun, and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang also borders Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai. The most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang, and it is currently China's largest natural gas-producing region.
It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Han, Kazakhs, Hui, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Mongols and Russians. More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as "Chinese Turkestan". Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation. 
With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory. The territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century; which was later replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union, and also promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang was turned into an autonomous region from a province.